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Callochromis macrops 마크롭스 소개

by lunatique posted Jul 21, 2005
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요근래 C. pleurospilus로 칼로크로미스 종들의 인기가 높아진 것 같습니다.
macrops에 대해 소개해 봅니다.
플로로스필러스보다는 훨씬 크는 종이고, 발색도 만만치 않은 녀석입니다.
F1치어들도 벌써 발색이 나오고 있더군요... ^^


Male Callochromis macrops at Kasanga



Namansi



Moliro



Callochromis macrops male from Isanga


Scientific Name: Callochromis macrops

Habitat: Shallow Sediment-Rich Habitat

Diet: Carnivore

Gender Differences: Dimorphic

Breeding: Maternal Mouthbrooder

Temperament: Mildly Aggressive

Conspecific Temperament: Aggressive

Maximum Size: 5"

Temperature: 77 - 79°F

pH: 8.6 ?9.1

Water Hardness: Very Hard


Callochromis macrops was first described by Boulenger in 1906 under the name of Paratilapia macrops, but was moved to the new genus Callochromis that were established by Regan in 1920, were it still remains today. Boulenger used specimens caught at Mbity and Kinyamkolo in Zambia, not very far from Mpulungu.
[macrops란 이름을 어떻게 갖게 되었는지에 대한 내용... ]

The body is rather long and the standard length is app. 16 cm for males, while the females get a little shorter - the eyes are very big. It has in comparison with the genus Xenotilapia only two lateral lines and the genus Callochromis is properly closer related to Ophthalmotilapia than it is to Xenotilapia.
[수컷은 16cm 정도 까지 자라고, 암컷은 수컷보다 작다. 눈이 매우 크다.]

Like all other Callochromis species, C. macrops is a maternal mouthbrooder with a very distinct difference between the sexes: The males are gorgeously colored and the females are much more anonymous dressed in silver. A very special feature linked with Callochromis is the unique egg-spot on the male's anal-fins, which can't be found in any other mouthbrooding cichlid in Lake Tanganyika.
[어미가 알을 문다. 수컷은 엄청 화려한데반해, 암컷은 걍 은색이다. 마크롭스 수컷은 꼬리지느러미에 점이 있는데, 탕어들 중 유일하다...]

C. macrops distributional range encompasses the southern half of the Lake ?from the Ubwari peninsula in Congo, through Zambia and up to Kigoma in Tanzania. In the northern part of the Lake the habitat is instead occupied by C. melanostigma ?a very close related relative which until 1986 was regarded as subspecies of C. macrops.
[마크롭스의 서식지 설명과 마크롭스 유사종인 melanostigma에 대한 설명.]



C. melanostigma (마크롭스와 매우 유사하나, 꼬리에 점이 없따...)





Several geographical variants of C. macrops are known ?the variant from Kigoma resembles C. melanostigma but lacks the black markings in the dorsal fin. The variants from Tanzania more or less resemble each other with a black body and red eye-ring ?the form at Namansi is especially beautiful. There occur many distinct variants along the Zambian shoreline and as Konings notice, it is quite remarkable that there exist such a variable coloration in relation to the nearest different form. The explanation should properly be found in the preferences of this species breeding habitat ?the shallow rocky shores ?and it could play an important role in the segregation of the different populations. The 밨ed Macrops?is found in Nkamba Bay and is recognized by its golden-red hue all over the body. The sides of the Ndole and Sumbu variants an even darker red is found. The form at Ndole has black markings on a blue dorsal fin where the Sumbu form bears additional markings on the cheeks. At Kasabae Bay a purple colored form occurs.
[마크롭스 변이종들 설명...]


Callochromis macrops in the wild


C. macrops are found in the sandy and often sediment-rich shallows in the Lake often in the vicinity of small rocks and waterplants. It is found sympatrically with C. pleurospilus, but it seems that the latter prefers the extreme shallows while C. macrops is found a little deeper. They form large foraging schools, as so many of the other sand-dwelling species and feed primarily on insect larvae, small snails, shrimps, crustaceans and other invertebrates and the stomach have even been found containing remains of fish ?they are true generalized carnivores. The upper layer of the sand is randomly chewed and filtered for food. In the aquarium they leave the bottom strewn with small pits similar to those seen in the Lake where C. macrops are found.
[모래지역이나, 침전물이 많은 곳에서 서식. 플로로스필러스와 서식지가 유사하나, 마크롭스는 좀더 깊은 곳을 선호. 완전 잡식.]

C. macrops are a lek-breeder which construct their sand-scrape nest near rocks or water plants in very shallow water often less than two meters of depth. The sand-castle nest consist of a heap of sand about 20-30 cm above the bottom and have a flat spawning platform on top and the nests are spaced two to three meters apart.
[산란시 2m 이내 깊이의 모래 구덩이를 만든다.]

Ripe females huddle together under the cover of the water plants or at the edge of a more rocky section of the habitat. Mouthbrooding females are often found solitary or in small groups and hide in the water plants as well. In the aquarium the males always pick the brightest spot to construct their nest in order to make them as visible as possible, a behavior also seen in Lake.



Maintenance


In the aquarium Callochromis macrops is a very aggressive sand-dweller which is best kept in small groups consisting of a single male and at least three females. If more then one male is kept together you nearly always end up with at best, a male hiding in the corner or at worst, a dead one. Even if the tank is rather long it's the same story. This behavior has a simple explanation ?in the Lake the nests are spaced a couple of meters apart, as mentioned above, and a male will aggressively chase all other males away from what he recognizes as his breeding territory.
[암수비율은 1:3정도가 적합.]

A harem-group as the former can be kept in an aquarium with the length of at least 130 cm (4,25 feet) if it's a provided with sufficient shelter for the females ?a bigger tank would be better though. Besides the sand the tank should have several caves built out of rock and some groups of water plants to offer the females some protection.
[수조는 최소 130cm가 되어야 한다... 암컷의 숨을 장소를 위해 돌도 조금 넣어주자...]



Reproduction


As mentioned above the males of Callochromis macrops builds small sand-castle nest and they do the same in the aquarium. In captivity can also be seen the gathering of females in small groups while they seek shelter between the water-plants.


But the most interesting has yet to come; the spawning. The male tries vigorously to lure the female into the nest and if he succeeds, tries to cut her off in order to prevent her from escaping. Other males are aggressively chased away. The male then leads the female to the centre of the nest and shows where she should deposit her eggs by folding the anal fin in such a manner that the orange-red spot on his fin resembles an egg in three dimensions and holding it in the centre of the nest; a very interesting play to watch! The female deposits some eggs in the centre of nest and then turns around and picks them up. At the same time the male holds his folded anal fin in front of the female's mouth and releases his milt. This is taken in by the female together with the eggs which thus are fertilized.
[교미시 수컷 꼬리의 오렌지점이 암컷으로 하여금 알처럼 보이게 한다.... 수컷의 꼬리점을 보고 암컷이 둥지안에 산란하고, 알을 입에 물면, 수컷이 암컷 입안에 산란하고 수정이 된다.]

The clutch size of Callochromis macrops ranges between 25-60 eggs. Young not fully grown females haven's room for so many eggs and have smaller clutches. The young females often produce more eggs than can be taken into the mouth and they become eaten by the male. As C. macrops is a maternal mouthbrooder, the female holds the eggs and larvae in the entire mouthbrooding period which last for 18-21 days. The larvae are then 16 mm and they should immediately be fed with newly hatched artemia, frozen bosmins and cyclops.
[다큰 암컷의 경우 알을 25~60개 산란. 18~21일 후 치어들이 날라댕길 수 있으며, 이때 치어 크기는 16mm정도....]


Conclusion


Callochromis macrops is an extremely beautiful and interesting sand dweller but in the same time the most aggressive - they are best kept by themselves in a harem-group consisting of one male and several females. This aggressive behavior can be forgiven though, as the breeding behavior are one of the most spectacular among the sand-dwellers of Lake Tanganyika.
[결론: 마크롭스는 매우 이쁜 종이긴 하나, 무쟈게 사나운 종이기도 하다.... ^^]







***** 담뽀뽀님에 의해서 게시물 복사 + 카테고리유지되었습니다 (2005-10-27 02:05)

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